Paper sessions & workshop D

Paper sessions D:I-D:V  April 25th, 11:00-12:30

Sustainable Manufacturing

Session Chair: Amir Rashid. Room Host: Mikael Sahl

Influence of processes and process variables for WAAM-geometry of deposited bead

Peigang Li, Yazan Al-Hallis and Rani Al-Chafei


Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is developing rapidly in recent years due to its advantages, such as higher productivity, lower cost, acceptable quality, and the availability of advanced welding processes. Cold Metal Transfer (CMT), as the most well-known Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process, is widely used in WAAM. The uniqueness of CMT lies in minimizing the heat input of the process. However, there is a drawback to the lower heat input, impacting the quality of the geometry of the welding bead, sharp transitions at the weld toe, inclusions, etc., particularly for higher alloyed steel, e.g., tool steel. In this study, two processes were employed: CMT and Pulse Multi Control (PMC). Two types of shielding gases were used, namely 2% CO2 + 98% Ar and 20% CO2 + 80% Ar. Two levels of wire feed speed were selected: high and low levels. A full-fraction factorial experimental matrix was created, and bead-on-plate samples were produced with different GMAW processes, i.e., CMT and PMC. The geometry of the bead-on-plate, including penetration, bead width and height, and toe angle, was evaluated and analyzed. A correlation between the process factors (shielding gas, type of process, and wire feed speed) and the geometry of the bead was analyzed and determined. A protocol is proposed based on the study results for the selection of WAAM processes. 

Industrial LPBF: sustainable manufacturing through product design and technology optimization

B. Dovgyy, International Additive Manufacturing Group Sp. z o.o., Pruszków, Poland


We will share the experience of building a small-scale enterprise centered on AM LPBF solutions. The strategy is to combined in one loop an engineering bureau (CAD design, reverse engineering, topology optimization, generative design), materials testing and design (custom alloy production, material development, mechanical testing, microstructure analysis), manufacturing with own metal AM LPBF equipment and AM printing hum (LPBF, DLP, FDM, post-processing). As a proof of concept, we will show few examples of successful industrial and research projects including collaboration with Ukrainian aerospace enterprises. We have introduces Additive Manufacturing to produce aero engines and aircraft components with IN718 alloy with cost savings up to 90%. We contributed to the design and manufacturing of an innovative rocket engine unique for Eastern Europe. We will introduce you an exceptional team of highly skilled engineers and leading scientists preserved despite the full-scale invasion into Ukraine.

Ultrasonic Signal Response from Internal Manufactured Defects in PBF-LB manufactured superalloys

Mikael Sahl, Mattias Broddegård, Erik Lindgren och Håkan Wirdelius


In the emerging field of Additive Manufacturing (AM), the promise of unparalleled design flexibility, resource efficiency, and rapid prototyping has captivated both industry and academia. While AM techniques offer a wide range of manufacturing possibilities, they also present unique challenges in ensuring structural integrity and material properties. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods, including Ultrasonic Testing (UT), have emerged as invaluable tools for evaluating the internal structure of AM components without compromising their integrity. By employing NDT techniques, it is possible to detect flaws such as porosities, cracks, and other inhomogeneities early in the manufacturing process, thereby improving reliability, extending the lifespan, and reducing the overall environmental footprint of AM products. While the occurrence of defects from processes such as welding is well-established, documented and standardized with regards to NDT, a knowledge gap exists for defects in the field of AM. Specifically, reference reflectors commonly used in the industry, such as side-drilled holes and flat bottom holes, are well understood when machined into components using traditional (subtractive) means. AM offers more flexibility, e.g., adding closed internal reference reflectors directly from the build-process. Twelve straight blocks were manufactured using Laser Powder Bed Fusion (PBF-LB) with carefully selected artificial defects. All defects were created by CAD (Computer Aided Design) seeding, i.e., introducing voids into the CAD-model. The blocks were inspected using Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing as well as conventional ultrasonic testing. It was shown that the as-built surface of PBF-LB has an adverse impact on the ultrasonic testing signal response, and the detectability of defects was quantified under the different conditions (machined surface compared to as-built). It was shown that the build direction has an impact on the morphology and the UT signal response from internally seeded defects. 

Digitalization for efficient product realization


Session Chair: Anna Öhrwall Rönnbäck. Room Host: Karthik Vaidyalingam Arumugam


How can XR enhance collaboration with CAD/CAE tools in remote design reviews?

Francisco Garcia Rivera, Asreen Rostami, Sandra Mattsson and Henrik Söderlund


This study studies the challenges of effective communication and collaboration in remote design review meetings (DRMs) and explores the potential of Extended Reality (XR) technologies to address these challenges. The research focuses on identifying recurring communication issues and the preferences of companies within the context of remote DRMs. The study involves qualitative content analysis and industry workshops to uncover the current problems with conventional approaches and the aspirations of companies regarding improved collaboration in the DRM process. Drawing upon the insights gathered from both the workshop and design review observations, this paper highlights the features that are critical for collaborative software to handle online design reviews. XR technologies offer immersive and interactive experiences that can transform communication and collaboration in the context of DRMs. By identifying the specific challenges faced in remote DRMs and understanding the desires of companies, this study sets the stage for a more efficient and effective collaborative process. It emphasizes the adaptability of XR technologies to meet industry needs and integrate seamlessly into existing workflows. The study concludes by highlighting the potential for XR technologies to enhance collaboration in DRMs, making them a valuable tool for various industries. 

Diagnostics of opportunities – a dialogue tool for addressing digital factory maturity

Anna Ericson Öberg, Carla Goncalves Machado and Lina Stålberg


For over 15 years, the concept of Industry 4.0, now transitioning into Industry 5.0, has been a focal point for the manufacturing sector. Yet, the success of companies in embracing digital transformation varies. There are numerous models and assessment tools for assessing digital readiness and maturity. Several models have been developed over the years, but firms also realize no "one-size-fits-all" exists when testing them. Previous studies show that firms must take charge of their own digital transformation (DT) journey to find a path that suits their specific needs.This qualitative paper is driven by a case study supported by a within-case analysis conducted with a heavy-machine industry with fourteen production plants worldwide – data collected from 2020 to 2023. Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE), created Factory 4 Tomorrow (F4T) to address Industry 4.0. The central challenge for the F4T initiative was how to facilitate an inside-outside approach to identify an inclusive maturity model that emphasizes learning and collaboration. A diagnostic of opportunities model was created to aid the organisation’s transformation journey. It aimed to support all plants by evaluating their maturity in digital transformation, identifying gaps, and support in prioritising. Unlike traditional models that assess and compare plant levels, this model aimed to foster awareness and alignment, establishing a shared language. Thus, a unique model was explicitly crafted for the firm. The process of developing the model itself enhanced awareness and alignment. Therefore, this paper explores the development process - failures and successes - to compile a digital transformation maturity model tailor-made to a firm's needs and goals. The objective is to offer comprehensive advice for firms to implement DT initiatives effectively in a way that suits them. 

What Not to Do: VR Implementation Teams and the Barriers that Inhibit them

Barrett Sauter, Anna Granlund, Viktoria Badasjane, Mats Ahlskog and Jessica Bruch


Implementation of VR into NPD processes requires a coordinated effort from within the manufacturing organization. However, the knowledge to carry this out successfully is still quite limited within research as well as within manufacturing organizations, leading to failed pilot projects and a waste of resources. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify barriers that inhibit VR implementation. A multiple case study has been carried out focusing on two VR implementation attempts within a single manufacturing site. The results identify four specific roles and their responsibilities within the VR implementation teams: Key driver, gatekeeper, key user, and general user. The results further identify the barriers experienced within the VR implementation attempts. 

Integration of education and research

Session Chair: Kristina M. Eriksson. Room Host: Ali Eskandari

Exploring the Industrial Engineering Competences in the Changing Landscape of the New Industrial Revolution

Marisol Rico-Cortez, Nils-Eric Andersson and Kerstin Johansen      


The aim of this paper is to explore the possibilities of how Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), by integrating research and education, can increase the industrial competences of students. By exploring the perceptions of various stakeholders and analyzing ongoing trends, this paper seeks to shed light on the potential ways in which HEIs can contribute to future industrial competitiveness. Identifying existing skill gaps among future engineers will enable the HEIs to know the demand for skills and align graduate capabilities with industry requirements. The final reflections will explore how HEIs can collaborate with regional and national industries, through integrating activities between engineering research and education, contributing to industrial readiness as well as to the DeepINVENTHEI initiatives in Europe. 

Key performance index for creating an integrated and sustainable academy – A university with the ability to meet future needs and challenges identified in society and industry

Jan-Eric Ståhl, Joel Andersson and Aylin Ahadi


Key performance indexes (KPIs) in various forms have always been used in one way or another in the production and processing of raw materials. The need for KPIs was accentuated with the advent of industrialism in the western world. The way and strategy of manufacturing industrial products has been divided into several so-called developmental transformations. Primarily after the depression of the 1930s and after the Second World War, a way of working and a basic view was gradually created that has resource efficiency and goal achievement as a fundamental idea. This publication describes how KPIs can be used in higher education to create a sustainable academy to meet challenges in industry and society over time. This with a focus on sustainability and continuity as well as a strategic integration between the academy's various missions. These missions consist of teaching, research and collaboration. Furthermore, according to the Higher Education Ordinance, teaching shall rest on a scientific basis and, when appointing senior positions, equal weight shall be attached to the merits that can be linked to teaching and research. In addition to teaching and research, collaboration must be conducted with the surrounding society. Society places increasing demands on the knowledge conveyed in teaching to harmonize with current needs and to prepare for future needs and challenges. A starting point for the publication is that needs and challenges can best be met through a conscious and strategic integration between the academy's various missions. Another aspect that is highlighted in this publication is the importance of strengthening the collaboration between basic subjects and more applied and industry-related subjects, which provides renewal in the applied subjects at the same time as the basic research can be utilized at a higher rate. In an industrial perspective, a more continuous TRL scale is obtained, which provides a more effective implementation of research results. A development path that strengthens the Academy's mission areas is the principle of affiliation of personnel from industry and other sectors of society and increased admission of industrial doctoral students and other external doctoral students. In order to monitor the development of the respective mission areas of academia and its integration, the use of KPIs will be addressed. A discussion of their benefits will be highlighted but also the associated difficulties, especially when conditions change. The conducted literature study shows that there are very few or rather no found publications dealing with KPIs for the integration of the Academy's different missions. KPIs are well developed for higher education in terms of its implementation and associated economics. Corresponding published work related to KPIs in research deals primarily with conventional academic bibliometrics. 

Smart Industry Sweden – A Collaborative Industrial Graduate School

Peter Thorvald, Jenny Bäckstrand, Lennart Malmsköld, Mattias O’Nils, Bengt Göran Rosén and Anna Syberfeldt


As we find ourselves in the midst of the fourth industrial revolution, also known as Industry 4.0, the digital transformation of products, processes, and systems, along with their interconnectedness, is of utmost interest. To ensure future competitiveness in the manufacturing sector, the integration of advanced manufacturing technologies and advanced information technology is essential. Information technologies and knowledge are deeply intertwined with industrial equipment, processes, products, and systems, posing a challenge in transitioning today's manufacturing industry into the digital era. The manufacturing sector will require adequate methods, a conducive working environment, new tools, and lifelong training to support its employees.

This article describes a joint effort of five Swedish universities with the ambition to strengthen the competitiveness and innovativeness of the national manufacturing industry through highly competent researchers and future leaders. The collaboration is in the form of an industrial graduate school, combining the efforts of five universities, 16 graduate students, and 12 companies or organisations. This article will outline how the graduate school has been organized, the joint efforts that have been made to assure the development of all parties, organisations and individuals, and will also outline some of the key success factors that have been identified thus far in the project. 

Workshop D, April 25th 11:00-12:30


VIVACE workshop

The workshop is strongly connected to the VIVACE project, which will capitalize on industrial digitalization and combine multiple perspectives to create a toolkit with scalable data-supported solutions for circular and eco-efficient production.

The workshop will include a short presentation of the VIVACE project and the workshop objectives. Then it will include group discussions on the use of factory data for eco-efficiency and circularity in production

Workshop Leader: Mélanie Despeisse, Chalmers